Lead

Scatterplot for Lead

Like the arsenic, the lead in all the Hissar copper-based artifacts in this study (with the exception of the Human figurine illustrated here) most likely derives from the original copper ore. Thus, the Pb-content’s general variation, from near-trace levels to around 3.0%, simply reflects differences in the conditions of smelting of that ore (Tylecote 1977).

Phase I: 
Range: 0.043%–1.7% (n=22) 
Mean: 0510% ± 0.09% (1 standard error) 
Highest Pb-level: Pin shaft (inv. 89-00-005) 
(Illustrated as line art only, in Phase I)

Phase II: 
Range: 0.039%–3.0% (n=31) 
Mean: 0.84% ± 0.12% (1 standard error) 
Highest As-level: Tapered bar (inv. 33-21-389) 
(Illustrated as line art only, in Phase II)

Phase III: 
Range: 0.014%–2.1% (n=43) 
Mean: 0.55% ± 0.07% (1 standard error) 
Highest As-level: Spearhead (inv. 33-21-908) 
(Illustrated as line art only, in Phase III)

Right: 33-22-134 
Human figurine 
As: 0.22% 
Sn: <0.015% 
Pb: 16.1% 
Ni: <0.012%