Abu Al-Soof, B., 1968: “Distribution of Uruk, Jamdat Nasr, and Ninevite V Pottery as Revealed by Field Survey in Iraq.” Iraq XXX: 74-86.

_____. 1969: “Excavations at Tell Qalinj Agha (Erbil), Summer, 1968.” Sumer 25: 3-42.

Adams, R. McC., 1974: Anthropological Perspectives on Ancient Trade. Current Anthropology 15:239-58. 

_____. 1996: Paths of Fire: An Anthropologist's Inquiry into Western Technology. Princeton: Princeton University.

Alden, J., 1982: Trade and Politics in Proto-Elamite Iran. Current Anthropology 23:613-628.

Algaze, G., 1993: The Uruk World System. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

_____. n.d.: “Tell Shenshi: an Important Early Settlement Near Khorsabad.” manuscript.

Ball, W., 1997: Tell Shelgiyya: An Early Uruk ‘Sprig Ware Manufacturing and Exporting Centre on the Tigris. Al Rafidan 18:93-101.

Behm-Blancke, M., 1992a: Hassek Höyük: Naturwissenschaftliche Untersuchungen und Lithische Industrie. Tubingen: Ernst Wasmuth Verlag.

_____. 1992b: Hassek Höyük: Eine Uruk Station im Grenzland zu Anatolien. Nürnberger Blätter zur Archäologie 8:82-94.

Berthoud, T., Bonnefous, S., Dechoux, M., and Francaix, J., 1980: "Data Analysis toward a Model of Chemical modification of Copper from Ores to Metal," in Proceedings of the XIXth Symposium on Archaeometry (edit., P.T., Craddock; London: British Museum, BMOP 18), pp. 87-102.

Boese, J., 1995: Ausgrabungen in Tell Sheikh Hassan I. Vorläufige Berichte über die Ausgrabungskampagnen 1984-90 und 1992-94. Saarbrücken: Saarbrücker Druckerei und Verlag.

British Admiralty, Naval Intelligence. 1916: Handbook of Mesopotamia. British Government Printing Office.

Butterlin, P., 2003: Les Temps Proto-Urbains de Mésopotamie: Contacts et acculturation á l’époque d’Uruk au Moyen-Orient. Paris: CNRS Éditions.

Caldwell, D., 1976. The Early Glyptic of Gawra, Giyan and Susa, and the Development of Long Distance Trade.: Orientalia 43(3): 227-250.

Colloques du C.N.R.S. 1980: L’Archeologie de l’Iraq. Paris: Editions de C.N.R.S.

Costin, C. L., 1995: Craft Specialization: Issues in Defining, Documenting, and Explaining the Organization of Production. In Archaeological Method and Theory, vol. 3, edited by Michael B. Schiffer, pp. 1-56. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.

Davidson, T.E. and H. McKerrell. 1980: The Neutron Activation Analysis of Halaf and ‘Ubaid Pottery from Tell Arpachiyah and Tepe Gawra.” Iraq XLII: 155-167.

Dercksen, J. G., 1996: The Old Assyrian Copper Trade in Anatolia. Istanbul: Nederlands Historisch-Archaeologisch Instituut te Istanbul.

Esin, U., 1991: An Early Trading Center in Eastern Anatolia. In Anatolia and the Ancient Near East, edited by K. Emre, B. Hrouda, M. Mellinck, and N. Özguç, pp. 136-41. Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu Basimevi.

Forest, J-P., 1983: Les Pratique Funeraires en Mesopotamie de 5e Millenaire au Debut du 3e, Etude des Cas. Memoire 19. Paris: Editions Recherche sur les Civilisations.

Gut, R., 1995: Das prähistorische Ninive: zur relativen Chronologie der fruhen Perioden Nordmesopotamiens. Mainz am Rhein: Phillip von Zabern.

Hauptmann, H., 1976: Die Grabungen auf dem Norsun-Tepe, 1973. Keban Project 1973 Activities. Middle East Technical University Series I, no. 6. pp. 61-78. Ankara.

_____. 1982: Die Grabungen auf dem Norsun-Tepe, 1974. Keban Project 1974 Activities. Middle East Technical University Series I, no. 7. pp. 41-70. Ankara.

Helms, M., 1993: Craft and the Kingly Ideal. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Helwing, B., 1999: Cultural Interaction at Hassek Höyük, Turkey: New Evidence from Pottery Analysis. Paléorient 25:91-99.

Hijara, I., 1980: Arpachiyah, 1976. Iraq XLII: 131-154.

Johnson, G., 1987: The Ancient Economy, Transferable Technologies and the Bronze Age World-System: A View from the Northeastern Frontier of the Ancient Near East. In Centre and Periphery in the Ancient World, edited by M. Rowlands, M. T. Larsen, and K. Kristiansen, pp. 13-24. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Kohlmeyer, K., 1993: Zur fruehen Geschichte von Blei und Silber. In Handwerk und Technologie im Alten Orient, edited by R. B. Wartke, pp. 41-48. Mainz: Verlag Philipp von Zaubern.

Mallowan, M., 1933: The Prehistoric Sondage of Ninevah. Annals of Archaeology and Anthropology 20: 127-77.

_____. 1947: Excavations at Tell Brak and Chagar Bazar. Iraq IX: 1-259.

Mallowan, M. and R. Cruikshank. 1935: Excavations at Arpachiyah. Iraq II: 1-178.

Nissen, H-J., 1988: The Early History of the Ancient Near East. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

_____. 1995: Culturelle und politische Netzwerke des 4 und 3 vorchristlichen Jahrtausends im Vorderen Orient. In Beiträge zur Kulturgeschichte Vorderasiens (FS Boehmer), edited by U. Finkbeiner, R. Dittman, and H. Hauptmann, pp. 473-90. Mainz: Verlag Philipp von Zaubern.

Nissen, H-J., P. Damerow, and R. Englund 1993: Archaic Bookkeeping. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Nissen, H-J., and R. Englund. 1993: Die lexicalischen Liste der archaischen Texte aus Uruk. Berlin: Gebr. Mann.

Oates, J., 1984: Tell Brak: Uruk Pottery from the 1984 Season. Iraq XLVII:175-186.

Oates J. and D. 1995: An Open Gate: Cities of the Fourth Millennium BC (Tell Brak 1997). Cambridge Archaeological Journal7:287-307.

Özbal, H., 1996: Chemical Analysis of a Copper Chisel from Hacınebi Tepe. Anatolica 22:109-10.

_____. 1997: Early Metal Technology at Hacınebi Tepe. In Excavations at Hacınebi, Turkey, 1996: Preliminary Report, by G. Stein, K. Boden, C. Edens, J. Edens, K. Keith, A. McMahon, and H. Özbal. Anatolica 23:139-43.

Özbal, H., A. Adriaens, and B. Earl. 1999: Hacınebi Metal Production and Exchange. Paléorient 25(1):57-65.

Özbal, H., B. Earl, and M. Adriaens. 1998: Early Fourth Millennium Copper Metallurgy at Hacınebi. In Excavations at Hacınebi, Turkey, 1996: Preliminary Report, by G. Stein, K. Boden, C. Edens, J. Edens, K. Keith, A. McMahon, and H. Özbal. Anatolica24:167-70.

Palmieri, Alberto, Kemal Sertok, and E. Chernykh. 1993: From Arslantepe Metalwork to Arsenical Copper Technology in Eastern Anatolia. In Between the Rivers and over the Mountains, edited by M. Frangipane, H. Hauptmann, M. Liverani, P. Matthiae, and M. Mellink, pp. 573-99. Rome: Universite di Roma “La Sapienza.”

Palmieri, A. et al., 1995: Archaeometallurgical Survey in 1994 at Malatya-Arslantepe and Its Surroundings. Arkeometri Sonuçlaıï Toplanısı 11:105-15.

Pernicka, E., T. Rehren, and I. Schmitt-Strecker. 1998: Late Uruk Silver Production by Cupellation at Habuba Kabira, Syria. in Metallurgica Antiqua, in Honor of G.-G. Bachmann and R. Maddin, pp. 123-34. Bochum: Deutches Bergbau-Museum.

Pollock, S., 1992: Bureacrats and Managers, Peasants and Pastoralists, Imperialists and Traders: Research on the Uruk and Jemdet Nasr Periods in Mesopotamia. Journal of World Prehistory 6:297-336.

Porada, E., 1965: The Relative Chronology of Mesopotamia. Part I. Seals and Trade (6,000-1,600 B.C.). in Chronologies in Old World Archaeology. Robert Ehrich (ed.) pp. 131-181. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Postgate, N. (ed.), Artefacts of Complexity: Tracking the Uruk in the Near East. Wiltshire, England: British School of Archaeology in Iraq

Reade, J. E., 1968: Tell Taya (1967): Summary Report. Iraq XXX(2): 234-264.

Roaf, M., 1990: Cultural Atlas of Mesopotamia and the Ancient Near East. New York: Facts-on-File.

Rothman, M. S., 2004: Studying the Development of Complex Society: Mesopotamia in the Late Fifth and Fourth Millennia BC. Journal of Archaeological Research 12 (1): 75-119.

_____. 2003: Late Fifth Millennium Exchange Systems in Northern Mesopotamia: Chemical Characterization of Sprig and Impressed Wares. Al-Rafidan: XXIV: 1-24. 

_____. 2002a: Tepe Gawra: Chronology and Socio-economic Change in the Foothills of Northern Iraq in the Era of State Formation. In Artefacts of Complexity: Tracking the Uruk in the Near East. N.Postgate, ed. pp. 49-77. Wiltshire, England: British School of Archaeology in Iraq.

_____. 2002b: Tepe Gawra. the Evolution of a Small, Prehistoric Center in Northern Iraq. Philadelphia: The University of Pennsylvania Museum Publications.

_____. 2001a: The Tigris Piedmont and Eastern Jazira in the Fourth Millennium B.C. in Uruk Mesopotamia and its Neighbors: Cross-cultural Interactions in the Era of State Formation. M. Rothman, ed. pp. 349-402. Santa Fe: SAR Press.

_____. 2001b: The Local and the Regional: Introduction. In Uruk Mesopotamia and its Neighbors: Cross-cultural Interactions in the Era of State Formation. pp. 3-26. Santa Fe: SAR Press.

_____. 2000: The Commoditization of Goods and the Rise of the State in Mesopotamia. in Commodities and Globalization, A. Haugerud, P. Stone, P. Little, eds. Society of Economic Anthropology Publications. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers.

_____. 1988: Centralization, Administration and Function at Fourth Millennium B.C. Tepe Gawra, Northern Iraq. Doctoral dissertation, University of Pennsylvania.

Rothman, M. S. and M.J. Blackman. 2003: Late Fifth Millennium Exchange Systems in Northern Mesopotamia: Chemical Characterization of Sprig and Impressed Wares. Al-Rafidan: XXIV: 1-24.

Schwartz, G., 1982: From Prehistory to History on the Habur Plains: The Operation 1 Ceramic Periodization from Tell Leilan. Doctoral dissertation, Yale University.

_____. 1985: The Ninevite V Period and Current Research. Paléorient 11/1: 53-7.

Schwartz, M., D. Hollander, and G. Stein. 1999: Reconstructing Mesopotamian Exchange Networks in the 4th Millennium BC. Paléorient 25(1):67-82.

Speiser, E. A., 1928: Traces of the Oldest Cultures of Babylonia and Assyria. Archiv for Orientschrift 5: 161-64.

_____. 1929: Preliminary Excavations at Tepe Gawra. BASOR IX: 17-94.

_____. 1930: The Expedition at Billah. BASOR 40: 11-14.

_____. 1931: The Excavation at Tepe Gawra. BASOR 44: 5-8.

_____. 1933: The Pottery of Tell Billah. Museum Journal 23: 249-308.

_____. 1935: Excavations at Tepe Gawra, Volume I. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Stein, G., 1998: World Systems Theory and Alternative Modes of Interaction in the Archaeology of Culture Contact. In Studies in Culture Contact: Interaction, Culture Change, and Archaeology, edited by J. Cusick, pp. 220-55. Occasional Paper 25. Carbondale, Illinois: Center for Archaeological Investigations.

_____. 1999: Rethinking World Systems: Diasporas, Colonies, and Interaction in Uruk Mesopotamia. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.

Stein, G. (ed.), 1999: The Uruk Expansion: Northern Perspectives from Hacınebi. Hassek, Höyük. and Gawra. Paléorient 25(1).

Tobler, A. J., 1950: Excavations at Tepe Gawra, Volume II. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. 

Weiss, H., 1983: The Origins of Tell Leilan and the Conquest of Space in third Millennium Mesopotamia. in The Origins of Cities in Dry-Farming Syria and Mesopotamia in the Third Millennium B.C. Harvey Weiss (ed.) pp. 71-108. Guilford, CN: The Four Quarters Publishing Co.

von Wickede, A., 1987: Stempelsiegel in Vorderasien: eine Untersuchungen zur Entwicklung der Glyptik in der Fruhzeit des Zweistromlandes. Doctoral dissertation, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitat, Munich.

Wright, G., 1969: Obsidian Analysis and Prehistoric Near Eastern Trade: 7500 to 3500 B.C. Museum of Anthropology Papers 37. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan.