Early Dynastic III/Akkadian: Cemetery A

Kish: Early Dynastic III/Akkadian

All the copper-base artifacts illustrated here are from Kish’s Cemetery A, which overlies the abandonment of Mound A. Thirty-nine of them are from graves that certainly date to the Early Dynastic III and early Akkadian periods (EDIII–early Akk, circa 2450–2250 B.C.) The other four have the quite loose provenance of just having been found in the Mound’s soil, but there is little doubt that they date to the EDIII/early Akk period as well.

Of the copper-based artifacts from graves, twenty-seven of them are pins of some kind. This represents quite well the corpus recovered from Cemetery A overall—76 pins among 257 copper-based artifacts from 150 graves.

 

The numbering system used here cites the UPM inventory number followed in brackets by the original field number.

Location of PIXE Analysis

Artifacts from "Mound A":

FM 228 472 [UG 2091]
Pin
Mound A (not from a grave)
As, 2.7%; Sn, 0.043%; Ni, 0.45%

FM 228 464 [UG 1993]
Toggle pin
Mound A (not from a grave)
As, 1.1%; Sn, 0.14%; Ni, 0.29%

FM 236 501 [UG 1374]
Chisel
Mound A (beneath the green wall), grave 775
As, 0.77%; Sn, 0.10%; Ni, 0.39%

FM 236 611 [UG 2805]
Awl
A trench, at the 2 meter level
As, 1.6%; Sn, 0.12%; Ni, 0.54%

Artifacts from Graves:

FM 228 469 [UG 2676]
Needle
A Cemetery, grave 131
As, 0.17%; Sn, <0.016%; Ni, <0.012%

FM 236 152 [UG 1135]
Pin
A Cemetery, grave 12
As, 2.6%; Sn, 0.35%; Ni, 1.6%

FM 158 020 [UG 1991]
Pin
A Cemetery, grave 63
As, 2.0%; Sn, 3.0%; Ni, 0.54%
Micrograph

FM 228 595 [UG 2843]
Pin
A Cemetery, grave 143
As, 1.9%; Sn, 0.35%; Ni, 0.26%
Micrograph

FM 228 473 [probably UG 2052]
Pin
A Cemetery, grave 68
As, 4.0%; Sn, 0.16%; Ni, 1.5%

FM 228 466 [UG 2338]
Pin
A Cemetery, grave 98
As, 0.43%; Sn, 0.061%; Ni, 0.049%
Micrograph

FM 228 459 [UG 2412]
Pin
A Cemetery, grave 101
As, 0.72%; Sn, 0.12%; Ni, 0.58%

FM 158 177 [UG 2186]
Pin, with a bovid head
A Cemetery, grave 80
As, 0.95%; Sn, 3.2%; Ni, 0.12%
Micrograph

FM 228 594 [UG 2245]
Pin, with a lapis bead on the head
A Cemetery, grave 87
As, 0.83%; Sn, <0.014%; Ni, 0.061%

FM 236 150 [UG 1150]
Toggle pin
A Cemetery, grave 13
As, 0.27%; Sn, 0.097%; Ni, 0.041%

FM 236 153 [UG 1178]
Toggle pin
A Cemetery, grave 15
As, 0.69%, Sn, 5.3%; Ni, 0.11%

FM 236 154 [UG 1197]
Toggle pin
A Cemetery, grave 16
As, 2.6%; Sn, <0.016%; Ni, 3.2%

FM 236 149 [UG 1334]
Toggle pin
A Cemetery, grave 21
As, 3.1%; Sn, 0.50%; Ni, 0.51%

FM 228 597 [UG 1878]
Toggle pin
A Cemetery, grave 50
As, 1.5%; Sn, 0.047%; Ni, 0.66%

FM 228 462 [UG 1952]
Toggle pin
A Cemetery, grave 55
As, 1.6%; Sn, 0.20%; Ni, 0.55%

FM 158 023 [UG 1990]
Toggle pin
A Cemetery, grave 63
As, 0.98%; Sn, 3.3%; Ni, 0.11%

FM 228 590 [UG 2110]
Toggle pin
A Cemetery, grave 71
As, 0.12%, Sn, 0.16%; Ni, 0.42%

FM 228 467 [UG 2281]
Toggle pin
A Cemetery, grave 92
As, 2.2%; Sn, <0.018%; Ni, 2.9%

FM 228 596 [UG 2582]
Toggle pin
A Cemetery, grave 123
As, 2.6%; Sn, 0.11%; Ni, 2.8%

FM 228 587 [UG 2425]
Toggle pin
A Cemetery, grave 102
As, 3.0%; Sn, 0.057%, Ni, 0.39%

FM 158 017 [UG 2537]
Toggle pin
A Cemetery, grave 120
As, 2.5%; Sn, 1.7%; Ni, 1.1%

FM 228 465 [UG 2590]
Toggle pin
A Cemetery, grave 126
As, 0.79%; Sn, 3.2%; Ni, 0.37%
Micrograph

FM 158 022 [UG 2639]
Toggle pin
A Cemetery, grave 128
As, 1.1%; Sn, 2.7%; Ni, 0.72%

FM 228 471 [UG 2657]
Toggle pin
A Cemetery, grave 130
As, 2.9%; Sn, 0.060%; Ni, 0.56%

FM 228 515 [UG 2614]
Toggle pin, with a lapis lazuli head
A Cemetery, grave 127
As, 0.55%; Sn, 9.7%; Ni, 0.12%

FM 228 588 [none]
Flat toggle pin
A Cemetery, grave 139
As, 0.81%; Sn, 0.14%; Ni, 0.45%
Micrograph

FM 228 592 [UG 2848]
Flat toggle pin
A Cemetery, grave 144
As, 2.6%; Sn, 0.043%; Ni, 2.9%

FM 158 153 [UG 2281]
Dagger, with a rivet in the tang
A Cemetery, grave 92
As, 2.3%; Sn, 0.095%; Ni, 0.087%

FM 158 154 [UG 2481]
Dagger/knife
A Cemetery, grave 113
As, 1.6%; Sn, 0.071%; Ni, 0.30%
Micrograph

FM 158 143 [UG 2743]
Dagger/knife
A Cemetery, grave 136
As, 0.46%; Sn, 0.044%; Ni, 0.19%

FM 236 486 [UG 1503]
Dagger/knife
A Cemetery, grave 34
As, 2.5%; Sn, 0.098%; Ni, 0.092%

FM 236 487 [UG 1504]
Dagger/knife
A Cemetery, grave 34
As, 2.2%; Sn, 0.11%; Ni, 0.52%

FM 158 158 [UG 2505]
Blade (folded socket type?)
A Cemetery, grave 117
As, 1.5%; Sn, 0.35%; Ni, 0.31%

FM 228 598 [UG 2744]
Awl
A Cemetery, grave 136
As, 0.065%; Sn, 0.20%; Ni, <0.012%
Micrograph

FM 228 719 [UG 0723]
Awl/chisel
A Cemetery, grave 5
As, 0.50%; Sn, 0.12%; Ni, 0.030%

FM 236 499 [UG 1261]
Flat adze
A Cemetery, grave 19
As, 0.94%; Sn, 0.23%; Ni, 0.28%
Micrograph

FM 236 142 [UG 2025]
Flat adze
A Cemetery, grave 66
As, 4.0%; Sn, 0.038%; Ni, 0.082%

FM 228 468 [UG 2455]
Handle of a vessel
A Cemetery, grave 110
As, 0.28%; Sn, 0.055%; Ni, 0.68%

FM 236 577 [UG 2455]
Handle of a vessel
A Cemetery, grave 110
As, 0.051%; Sn, 0.43%; Ni, 0.42%