Early Dynastic I: Cemetery Y

All the copper-base artifacts illustrated here are from Kish’s Cemetery Y. Two of them have just the provenance of “Y Trench,” and so can be dated no more closely than to the Early Dynastic I period (ED I, circa 2750–2650 B.C.). The remainder, however, are all from graves that Algaze (1983) has established as dating to the end of that period.

Tomb 357 was described in the Kish field records as "Chariot Burial 2." This context provided five of the artifacts included in this analytical project, and so is discussed in some additional detail elsewhere in the website.

The numbering system used here cites the UPM inventory number followed in brackets by the original field number.

Location of PIXE Analysis

Artifacts from the "Y Trench":

FM 158 162 [none]
Chisel (in two pieces)
Y Trench, 6 meters
As, 0.64%; Sn, 0.046%; Ni, 0.11%

K 946 [K 946]
Pin (one of a pair)
Y Trench, level 3
As, 0.48%; Sn, <0.015%; Ni, 0.037%

Artifacts from Graves:

FM 158 167 [Y 406m]
Chisel
Y Cemetery, grave 357
As, 2.5%; Sn, <0.012%; Ni, 0.12%

FM 236 490 [K 708]
Chisel
Y Cemetery, grave 631
As, 2.0%; Sn, 0.12%; Ni, <0.014%

FM 158 024 [Y 406n]
Awl
Y Cemetery, grave 357
As, 0.86%; Sn, <0.013%; Ni, <0.012%

FM 158 182 [none]
Flat adze
Y Cemetery, grave 306
As, 4.0%; Sn, 0.22%; Ni, 0.41%

FM 158 183 [Y 406p]
Flat adze
Y Cemetery, grave 357
As, 0.31%; Sn, 5.8%; Ni, 0.088%
Micrograph

FM 228 172 [V 497]
Flat adze
Y Cemetery, grave 469
As, 1.5%; Sn, 3.3%; Ni, 0.099%

FM 236 147 [K 981]
Flat adze
Y Cemetery, grave 684
As, 0.37%; Sn. <0.012%; Ni, 0.29%

FM 156 600 [Y 406o]
Saw
Y Cemetery, grave 357
As, 2.1%; Sn, <0.015%; Ni, 0.13%

FM 158 103 [Y 406l]
Saw (shown at 50% of original scale)
Y Cemetery, grave 357
As, 2.8%; Sn, <0.016%; Ni, 0.44%

V 793/794 [V 793/794]
Bident
Y Cemetery, grave 529
As, 3.1%; Sn, 1.2%; Ni, 0.049%

FM 229 667 [none]
Dagger/knife
Y Cemetery, grave 631
As, 1.8%; Sn, 3.8%; Ni, <0.012%